Wallonia, or the Walloon Region, is a federal region with legislative power, which has specific bodies and remits within the Belgian Federal State.

Founded in 1970, its institutions were properly established in 1980. Since then, the State reforms of 1988, 1993, 2001 and 2014 have continued to increase its autonomy and extend its mandate. These have been implemented by the Parliament of Wallonia and the Walloon Government, and seconded by the Public Service of Wallonia, public-interest organisations and the ombudsman.

Its current remit includes: the economy, employment, training, research, external trade, housing, social action, health, personal assistance, family, family benefits, land development, public works, transport, mobility, energy, local authorities, sports infrastructure, tourism, the environment, water, agriculture, rural renovation, nature conservation and international relations, within the framework of regional affairs.